Surrogacy is an agreement in which a woman – the surrogate mother – becomes pregnant and gives birth to a child on behalf of another person or a couple. There are different types and conditions for it. The idea of having another child carry a child for a couple is something that has been around for hundreds of years; it is also mentioned in the Bible. Over the last hundred years or so, there have been several medical and social advances that have made surrogacy more acceptable and easier to manage. The first case of surrogacy was in 1985. There are different charges and surrogacy cost in India.
A situation where the surrogate mother is artificially fertilized with the sperm of the father and so genetically related to the child is referred to as traditional surrogacy. This was most common since it occurs in a “self-made man or woman” manner, with no medical involvement, if necessary. In some cases, when the father is unable to produce viable sperm, a traditional surrogacy can occur with donor semen – in this case the resulting child is not genetically related to the parents who want to raise it.
In gestational surrogacy, an embryo with an egg and sperm is implanted by future parents into the surrogate mother. In this case the child is genetically related to the future parents. Gestational surrogacy can also take place either with donor sperm or a donation. This can be used when the intended mother or father is unable to produce sperm or an egg – or in the case of homosexual couples who want to have children. In these cases, the surrogate mother has no genetic relationship with the resulting child, but a parent. It is also possible to have gestational surrogacy with a donated embryo – often by couples who have successfully become pregnant with IVF. In this case, the resulting child has no genetic link, neither to the surrogate mother nor to the parents.
Surrogacy is one way
For a couple – either heterosexual or homosexual – to have a child if they are otherwise unable to do so. However, there have been several cases over the years where a surrogate mother refused to deliver the child, and long court battles followed (usually, these ended well for the intended parent). There is also a debate about the use of surrogate mothers and whether in some cases these women have been exploited or even forced to become pregnant on behalf of another couple. Many also ask if it is right for a woman to contract her body. The question of surrogacy can often bring with it many ethical arguments, many of which can be very unpleasant.
The role of a surrogate mother
The fundamental role of a surrogate mother, in the name of a person or a couple who is unable to do so, is to perform a pregnancy. It can either be inseminated artificially with the sperm of the father or with donor semen (traditional surrogacy), or it can be implanted an embryo (gestational surrogate motherhood). In a traditional surrogacy, the surrogate becomes the genetic mother of the child. In gestational surrogacy, she has no genetic connection to the child she delivers. It may be a friend or acquaintance of the person or couple designated as a parent, or they may find it through a web site or the like created specifically to associate potential parents with surrogate mothers. There are arguments on both sides.